Design Report by Markus Pfisterer

Idea and Concept

The design of the new JPS Stadium integrates the historical and cultural value of the existing building elements, designed by Jože Plečnik, into a modern state-of-the-art multifunctional sports arena.

The architectural importance of the National Monument will be enforced, in accordance with the buildings started in 1925.

All additional overground building elements, like the high-rise tower, will be clearly separated from the stadium in order to maintain the urban grid of the City of Ljubljana.

A physical connection between all buildings will be provided only in the underground levels, where besides various sports areas all entertainment, retail and parking functions can be found.

1. Stadium

The new stadium is positioned according to the geometry of the existing lower tier and follows the same principles of a single tier stadium. The distance between the tiers and the pitch has been reduced to improve the viewing conditions onto the pitch.

A ring of VIP boxes (10 to 20 visitors each, app. 600 skybox seats) on level 1 is connected via lifts to the VIP drop-off zones in basement levels 2 and 5. Satellite kitchens and lounge areas are located adjacent to the suites. Stadium operation, security and speaker are located on the same level. All sky boxes can be converted into hotel rooms for use on non-match days.

On the second level a VIP hall, dancing halls and a children´s section are located with direct views to the pitch. Direct vertical circulation to level 0 and the VIP boxes (level 1) is given.

All restrooms as well as food and beverage facilities are located on basement level 1 in the lower concourse with direct access from the tiers. The view to the existing brick wall from the stadium will thus be kept unobstructed.

Mixed Zone, players changing rooms and press facilities including the respective drop-off points are located in basement 2 with direct access to the pitch.
The existing openings in the historic wall around the stadium site are used for spectators´ access into the stadium. For emergency access, additional doors are provided on the northern and southern sides of the wall.

2. Hotel

The hotel rooms are located in the upper 9 levels of the high-rise building. Each level contains 20 hotel rooms of app. 30sqm each. At the end of each corridor full-height glazing and open balconies provide excellent views to the stadium and the surrounding areas.

Elevators provide access from the hotel lobby and reception zone in the ground floor. An additional lift connects the lobby to the underground parking levels B5. The roof of the building base will be used as an outdoor terrace for the hotel restaurant in level 03.

3. Health Care

In levels 1 and 2 of the tower base space for health care, such as a sports clinic or beauty clinic is created. The size of gross floor area of the highrise foot-print (2.100sqm) allows for flexible use for all spacial requirements of the above mentioned functions.

For guests accessing from level 0 separate lifts are provided, independent from hotel circulation.

4. Office Villas

The 3 office villas are located in the park at Koroška Ulica as free standing índividual units. The size of the buildings allows for a flexible use as office space of various sizes.

An underground parking garage with access on Vodovona Cesta connects all office villas, and allows for direct access to each building.

5.-6. Retail Areas in Triangular Building

Above- and underground retail space is combined with sports functions in the triangular building at Vodovodna Cesta alongside the direct access into the main shopping mall (level B4). All levels are connected by means of escalators and elevators. Clear room heights in the shops are minimum 3.85m. In level B2 (-10.62m) a bowling centre is located.

Direct access via lifts from underground parking in level B5 is also at hand.

7. Entertainment

All function of indoor sports are located in the under-ground tower levels with pedestrian access from Samova Ulica via the main foyer in level 0. This building gives an architectural „address“ to these specific functions.

The climbing hall with 17,50m room height connects all underground levels, natural light and spectacular views are provided in the main foyer on ground floor level.

8. Parking

App. 1.850 parking bays are located in the underground levels. They can be flexibly separated or connected ac-cording to the requirements on match-days or non-match-days. Two separate access ramps from Vodovodna Cesta and three internal connection ramps allow maximum flexibility.

9. Communication areas

To reduce building and operation costs, circulation space is reduced as much as possible. Escape routes are de-signed to allow for maximum 30m escape route length. The-se vertical circulations are used by different functions (stadium, entertainment, parking) in case of emergency.

10. Services/ Building Technology

According to the mechanical engineering concept, an appropriate amount of MEP area is designed for each function separately. These areas are located centrally
to serve all vertical ducts in the building structure within shortest possible distance.

Storage, delivery, waste disposal areas are provided in level B2.

The design clearly separates all functions from each other. This strategy allows for maximum flexibility in developing various functions at different times with a specific budget and operational concept.

The underground areas also follow the geometrical boundaries of the above-ground buildings, but allow for connections between the different programme units.
The lowest underground level is -18.72m, all structural elements respect the required distance of 2m from the water table.

Historical Elements

  • The obelisk, the brick wall, the Glorietta will be un-changed in position according to their value as a cultural heritage.
  • The tier adjacent to the Glorietta will be renovated and kept in its historic context and original geometry.
  • The two pavilions will be slightly moved to be respect-fully integrated in the new tier geometry and
  • all historic building elements will be renovated and kept as designed by Jože Plečnik.

Stadium

  • The shape of the historic stadium is kept in its „horseshoe“ geometry.
  • A transparent lightweight roof covers all seats of the new stands.
  • The architectural appearance of the Glorietta is prominently exposed by cutting back the glass roof.
  • A compact one-tier stadium for 7,500 spectators pro-vides
  • All seats have sightlines with a c-value of more than 9cm.
  • The pitch size for soccer and American football is in accordance to FIFA and UEFA standards.
  • The VIP boxes are located on level 1 with short viewing distances to the pitch.

Landscape

  • The public park along Koroška Ulica provides recreation space for the neighbouring community.
  • A new tree avenue on Koroška Ulica separates the housing development from the new free standing building volumes.
  • The existing row of trees on the souternh side of the stadium is integrated into the new urban design.
  • In all green areas 3 meters of top soil allow the root-ing of large trees.

Additional Functions

All functions are connected underground but separated in „small-scale“ buildings above-ground.

  • 3 office villas in the park area are designed for high-class office use
  • An upmarket hotel, office space and health care are combined with sports functions in the highrise building and its base.
  • The triangular building on the north-west corner pro-vides access to all underground functions for entertainment and indoor sports as well as retail space.

Parking

  • underground parking for approximately 1.850 cars
  • internal connection via 3 separate ramps
  • two separate access and egress ramps on Vodovodna Cesta (south and north)
  • truck access on pitch level from south access ramp (clear room height 4.50m)
  • VIP and players underground drop off area including two bus parking areas

Building Services

The structure of the technical plant conception is considered to provide maximum variability within the buildings.

In order to give the client the option for future divi-sion of real estates, each building will be supplied with all necessary media connections separately. This allows separate operation of all individual objects, including the reliable monitoring of the running cost.

Following the requirements of resource-saving systems and energy–efficient operation a sustainable technical concept shall be developed.
The following ecological and economical parameters have been implemented:

  • Minimization of polluting emissions
  • Comfortable room climate in summer and winter (f.e. use of inner heat loads)
  • Usage of solar infiltration during winter
  • Comfortable acoustic design of technical installations
  • Natural ventilation outside heating periods
  • Highly efficient heat recovery systems to reduce CO2 emissions
  • Minimization of mechanical smoke exhaust plants
  • integrated optimisation of constructive and thermal options for the use of daylight
  • Use of rain water for pitch watering / saving of drink-ing water
  • Energy-saving operation of air-handling units and chiller plants by user–defined operation
  • Synergetic effect by use of photovoltaics on glass roof to shade the stands and to generate electrical power at the same time.

Sanitary Engineering

Waste water systems

Waste water will be drained into the public drainage system. Those parts of the waste water system that are below backwater level will be drained by pumps/ siphons pre-venting backwater formation. Kitchens and sewage water from the food & beverage areas will be connected to grease separator systems.

The stadium roof and the roof of the hotel/ health care will be drained by a High-pressure drainage system. Due to meet the FIFAs 2006 Green Goal Standards, rain water from the stadium roof will particularly be collected for pitch watering.

The pitch will be equipped with a powerful drainage and connection to the sewers.

Water supply system

Drinking water will be provided by the local supplier. The Hotel / health care complex will be supplied by a booster installation.

Sanitary equipment and connections

The equipment of the stadium will be in number and quality due to the FIFA/ UEFA standards. Business-areas and VIP-Lounges will be in high quality standard. For the ho-tel / FIFA clinic a suitable high standard according to the hotels specification is considered.

Fire fighting systems and -installations

All buildings with their underground areas except for the office buildings will be equipped with full sprinkler systems.

Heating system

Separate connections for each building will be provided by the district heating
network.

Pitch heating will be installed for keeping the pitch free of snow and ice.

Hot water generation

Hot water for the hotel / FIFA clinic / stadium will be generated by combined storage/ charger systems. Each building complex will have own systems.

Office buildings will be provided with decentral electrical boilers.

Air Conditioning (incl. Cooling)

Ventilation
Ventilation will be realised by means of combined air in-take and exhaust units with highly efficient heat recovery. All units will be equipped with at least two speeds for full load and reduced load.

Chillers
Cooling will be provided by chillers with piston compressors. Recooling is designed with glycolrecoolers. The chillers will be suitable also for partial-load operation. Multi-stage compact chillers with reduced current start are suggest-ed. All cooling agents will be CFC-free.

Air-treatment according to the serviced areas:
Partial air-conditioning with air-supply and exhaust, heating and cooling: shops; restaurants; kitchens; re-tail; entertainment; team areas; business areas; lounge areas; press and TV-rooms; offices. For the offices an option for natural ventilation during summer is considered.

Full air-conditioning with air-supply and exhaust, heat-ing and cooling:

Hotel / FIFA clinic, VIP-boxes

Smoke extraction in stairwells and underground car park:
Each in-lying stairwell of the hotel / FIFA clinic / underground area will be fitted with a safety overpressure ventilation system to ensure that it remains free of smoke.

The underground car park will have mechanical ventilation and smoke extraction based on jet ventilation systems. Due to low investment and running cost the control of it will be provided by the CO-control systems.

Power Supply Equipment

Power supply
The medium voltage system of the local supplier will pro-vide power for the stadium. The design has to be in accordance to the FIFA / UEFA regulations. All other buildings will have separate medium voltage connections.

Uninterrupted power supply
Diesel generators will be installed for emergency power supply. All other safety-related systems such as fire alarm, load speaker, video and access control systems will have their own uninterruptible network supply devices that provide an independent power supply with battery back-up.

Lighting
Lighting will be executed in accordance with the relevant regulations of the European standards EN 12464 or respectively 13201, the directives for workplaces and the requirements by FIFA and UEFA.

The floodlight system will be executed in accordance with FIFA requirements, non-shadow and non-glare pitch light-ing with 2,400 lx for stationary cameras and 1,800 lx for pitch-cameras. For special events, such as open-air performances, an adequate number of electrical connection facilities with sufficient capacity is planned.

Semi-transparent photovoltaic modules are applied on the glass stadium roof for the synergetic effect of shading and power generation.

Lightning protection
The buildings will be equipped with an exterior and interior lightning-protection system.

Telecommunications and IT-Equipment

The following systems will be designed for Telecommunication and IT purposes:

Safety-relevant radio system, Electro-acoustic- and speaker systems, TV and antenna system, Fire alarm system, Burglar alarm system, Access control systems, Video monitoring

Video-screens
Two large-screen video displays will be installed inside the stadium, one at each length side. The screens will be LED-screens.

Media installations
For advertising, announcements and observation of the games, screens will be provided at the footpaths, in the VIP-lounges, reception areas and if requested at the en-trances.

Telecommunications system
The buildings will be equipped with an ISDN-telecommunication system.

Building automation
Building automation will include automation systems for all equipment with integrated measuring, control and regulation (HVAC) and also for the autonomous systems with not directly integrated measuring, control and regulation (shading devices, electrical and IT-installations, transport systems, etc.).